LTC References

Advanced Directive Usage:

Click to access db54.pdf

Alternate Nutrition:

Fessler T. Gastric residuals: Understanding their significance to optimize care. Today’s Dietitian. 2010;12(6):8-11.

Appetite Stimulants:

Fox CB, Treadway AK, Blaszyck AT, Sleeper RB. Megestral acetate and mirtazipine for the treatment of unplanned weight loss in the elderly. Pharmacotherapy 2009;29(4):383-97.

Diet Liberalization:

Stein K. Severely restricted diets in the absence of medical necessity: The unintended consequences. J Acad of Diet Nutr. 2014;114(7):986-995.

Disease Prevention: 

Position of the American Dietetic Association: The role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Am Diet Assoc. 2013;113(7):972-979

Dysphagia:   (International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative)

National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance. Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: Nutrition – an extract from the Clinical Practice Guideline. Emily Haesler (Ed.). Cambridge Media: Osborne Park, Western Australia; 2014.

Heiss C, Goldberg, L, Dzarnoski, M. Registered dietitians and speech-language pathologists: An important partnership in dysphagia management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(9):1290-1293.

Molfenter SM, Amin MR, Branski RC, et al. Age-related changes in pharyngeal lumen size: retrospective MRI analysis. Dysphagia. 2015;30(3):321-327.

Osawa A, Maeshima S, Tanahashi N. Water-swallowing test: screening for aspiration in stroke patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013; 35(3):276-81.

Chen PH, Golub JS, Hapner ER, Johns MM 3rd. Prevalance of perceived dysphagia and quality of life impairment in the geriatric population. Dysphagia. 2009;24(1):1-6.

Soares TJ, Moraes DP, de Medeiros GC, Sassi FC, Zilberstein B, de Andrade CR. Oral transit time: a critical review of the literature. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2015;28(2):144-7.

Clave P, Shaker R. Dysphagia: current reality and scope of the problem. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;12(5):259-70.

Corrigan ML, Escuro AA, Celestin J, Kirby DF. Nutrition in the stroke patient. Nutr Clin Pract. 2011;26(3):242-252.

Wirth R, Dziewas R, Beck AM, et al. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in older persons – from pathophysiology to adequate intervention: a review and summary of an international expert meeting. Clin Interv Aging. 2016;23(11):189-208.


Bandeen-Roche, K., Seplaki, C.L., Huang, J. et al. Frailty in older adults: A nationally representative profile in the United States. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015; 70: 1427-1434

Bauer, J., Biolo, G., Cederholm, T. et al. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: A position paper from the PROT-AGE study group. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013; 14: 542-559

Buta, B.J., Walston, J.D., Godino, J.G. et al. Frailty assessment instruments: Systematic characterization of the uses and contexts of highly-cited instruments. Ageing Res Rev. 2016; 26: 53-61

Cameron, I.D., Fairhall, N., Gill, L. et al. Developing interventions for frailty. Adv Geriatr. 2015; 2015: 1-7

Chen, X., Mao, G., and Leng, S.X. Frailty syndrome: An overview. Clin Interv Aging. 2014; 9: 433-441

Hickson, M. Nutritional interventions in sarcopenia: A critical review. Proc Nutr Soc. 2015; 74: 378-386

Hofman, C.S., Makai, P., Boter, H. et al. The influence of age on health valuations: The older olds prefer functional independence while the younger olds prefer less morbidity. Clin Interv Aging. 2015; 10: 1131-1139

Koster, A., Ding, J., Stenholm, S. et al. Does the amount of fat mass predict age-related loss of lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality in older adults?. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011; 66: 888-895
Manal, B. and Suzana, S. Nutrition and frailty: A review of clinical intervention studies. J Frailty Aging. 2015; 4: 100-106

Merigglioli, M.N. and Roubenoff, R. Prospect for pharmacologic therapies to treat skeletal muscle dysfunction. Calcif Tissue Int. 2015; 96: 234-242

Robinson, T.N., Wu, D.S., Stiegmann, G.V., and Moss, M. Frailty predicts increased hospital and six-month healthcare cost following colorectal surgery in older adults. Am J Surg. 2011; 202: 511-514

Wilkinson R, Arensberg M, Hickson M, Dwyer J. Frailty Prevention and Treatment: Why Registered Dietitian Nutritionists Need to Take Charge. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(7) 989-1144

GI Issues:

Reinhard T. Diverticular Disease: A reexamination of the fiber hypothesis. Today’s Dietitian. 2014;16(3):46-51.

Girdwain J. Combatting Clostridium Difficle. Today’s Dietitian. 2012;14(10):48-51.

Individualized Approaches:

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Individualized nutrition approaches for older adults: Long-term care, post-acute care, and other settings. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018;118(4): 724-735.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Individualized nutrition approaches for older adults in health care communities. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(10):1549-1552.

Practice paper of the American Dietetic Association: Individualized nutrition approaches for older adults in health care communities. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(10):1554-1562.


Montaya A, Mody L. Common infections in nursing homes: a review of current issues and challenges. Aging Health 2011;Dec(6):889-899.


Wakabayashi H, Kunihiro S. Rehabilitation nutrition for sarcopenia with disability: acombination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2014;5:269-277.

Maeda K, Akagi J. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of dysphagia in hospitalized older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2016;16:515-521.

Khan M, Hui K, McCauley M. What is a registered dietitian nutritionist’s role in addressing malnutrition? J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018; 118(9):1804.

Nutrition and Older Adults:

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Food and nutrition for older adults: Promoting health and wellness. J Acad of Diet Nutr. 2012;112(8):1255-1277.

Nutrition Screening:

Mini Nutrition Assessment:

Beck FK, Rosenthal TC. Prealbumin: A marker for nutritional evaluation.  Am Fam Physician. 2002; 65(8)1575-1579.

Shenken  A.  Serum Prealbumin: Is it a marker of nutritional status or of risk of malnutrition. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry. 2006; 52(12)2177-2179.

Serum proteins as markers of nutrition: what are we treating?

Isenring EA, Banks M, Ferguson M, Bauer JD. Beyond malnutrition screening: Appropriate methods to guide nutrition care for aged residents. J Acad of Diet Nutr. 2012;112(3)376-381.

Dorner B, Posthauer ME. Nutrition’s role in sarcopenia prevention. Today’s Dietitian. 2012;14(9)62-66.

Marcason, W. Should albumin and prealbumin be used as indicators for malnutrition? J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017; 117(7):1144.


Houston DK, Nicklas BJ, Zizza CA. Weighty concerns: The growing prevalence of obesity among older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(11):1886-1893.

Dorner B. The next challenge: Obesity in long-term care. Today’s Dietitian. 2006;8(1)59-60.

Protein Intake:

Berner LA, Becker G, Wise M, Doi J. Characterization of dietary protein among older adults in the United States: Amount, animal sources, and meal patterns. J Acad of Diet Nutr. 2013;113(6):809-815.

Standards of Practice:

Robinson GE, Cryst S. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2018 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and expert) in post-acute and long term care nutrition. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018; 118(9):1747-1760.

State Operations Manual:

State Operations Manual. Appendix PP-Guidance to surveyors for long-term care facilities. Revised 03/08/2017. Retrieved at:

Use of Synthroid/Weight Loss:

Hoang TD et al. Desiccated thyroid extract compared with levothyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Clin Endo- crinol Metab 2013;98:1982-90.

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